Fusion energy

The tokamak

The tokamak is the most developed magnetic confinement system and is the basis for the design of future fusion reactors using this method. It was invented in the Soviet Union during the 1960s and soon adopted by researchers around the world. The Joint European Torus (JET – pictured), located at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, is the largest and most powerful tokamak currently operating.

The JET tokamak at CulhamThe main tokamak components and functions are as follows:

  • The plasma is contained in a vacuum vessel. The vacuum is maintained by external pumps. The plasma is created by letting in a small puff of gas, which is then heated by driving a current through it.
  • The hot plasma is contained by a magnetic field which keeps it away from the machine walls. The combination of two sets of magnetic coils – known as toroidal and poloidal field coils – creates a field in both vertical and horizontal directions, acting as a magnetic ‘cage' to hold and shape the plasma.
  • Large power supplies are used to generate the magnetic fields and plasma currents.
  • Plasma current is induced by a transformer, with the central magnetic coil acting as the primary winding and the plasma as the secondary winding. The heating provided by the plasma current (known as Ohmic heating) supplies up to a third of the 100 million degrees Celsius temperature required to make fusion occur.
  • Additional plasma heating is provided by neutral beam injection. In this process, neutral hydrogen atoms are injected at high speed into the plasma, ionized and trapped by the magnetic field. As they are slowed down, they transfer their energy to the plasma and heat it.
  • Radiofrequency heating is also used to heat the plasma. High-frequency oscillating currents are induced in the plasma by external coils or waveguides. The frequencies are chosen to match regions where the energy absorption is very high (resonances). In this way, large amounts of power may be transferred to the plasma.


Take a closer look at the technology of tokamaks with our interactive model of the MAST device.

Diagram of magnetic confinement in a tokamak

(Courtesy of www.efda.org)